Blog


Feb

06

2019
Power to gas

Where is the power to gas?

Visit to Energy Park Mainz (Germany)

Wherever the power to gas is there will always be a restless engineer trying to learn and in our team we have several.

As you surely know, we are immersed in a project called H2-Smart where we studied the feasibility of using H2 along with our renewable engerias.

With the intention of learning the secrets of this technology we embarked on a technical visit to the facilities of Energy Park Mainz located just outside Mainz near Frankfurt (Germany).

These facilities have been designed and commissioned by a consortium composed of Siemens, The Linde Group, RheinMain University of Applied Sciences and Stadtwerke Mainz in 2017. (more…)


Dec

19

2018
The role of the price of CO2 in the Energy transition

The role of the price of CO2 in the Energy transition

Putting a price on carbon is an important step, and many in the private sector firmly believe which governments must go in that way to effectively approach climate change – The World Bank

What price must have the CO2 gas to leave out?

Last October 2018 we saw how coal and gas combined cycle acted in support of Spanish electrical system. The funny thing is that this has been going on in recent years. But, according to the government’s plans, this situation may end because, as we know, coal has its days numbered and the gas will be increasingly penalized by the increase in the price of CO2 emissions.

spanish-energy-mixIn December 2018, the UN in its Environment section published the annual disparity report on global emissions, in which 3 scenarios are proposed based on global warming objectives: less than 1.5ºC, 1.8ºC and 2ºC. In addition, the UN talks about urgent and unprecedented measures if we want this to not get out of hand.

On the other hand, the trend of global warming in the period 2014-2017 has been stagnant, being alarmed the increase experienced in this 2018. With these data, it is stated that only 40% of the countries will have achieved their emissions targets in 2020. This report talks of 3 fronts to mitigate the adverse data: effective policies on renewable, efficient transport and forestry.

Instead the study reveals that only 10% of the CO2 emitted globally is penalized with a tax effective enough to encourage not issued. Therefore, in order to achieve the goal of less than 2ºC of global warming, it is estimated that the value of the penalty is between 34-68 € / Ton CO2.

co2-price-increasing

Remember than 1 GWh produced with natural gas emits 202 Ton CO2, more than double if we do with coal. Doing accounts, and knowing the current competitiveness of the gas compared to other ways of generating, we can advance that in penalization ranges above 70 € / Ton CO2, it would not be profitable to generate electricity. Therefore, it is very possible that these plants had to be transformed to renewable gas, such as hydrogen.

In conclusion, I would like us to reflect on these data and we answer these questions. Without policies of penalization to the polluting technologies, a country like Spain will be able to realize a real energetic transition? Did you know the CO2 market and how it works? Do you see it right?

I invite you to leave comments.

Thank you!


Dec

05

2018
workshop movilidad sostenible

Workshop H2 – Smart 12/12/2018

Next December 12 we have a very special event within the project H2Smart, a workshop in which we have some luxury guests.

From 10 am in the Hall of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Granada we will try to give solution to the problems of pollution that has our metropolitan belt.

We will be accompanied by 5 city councils of the province: Jerónimo Vida Manzano (Granada), Olivier Cortes (Armilla), Armando Moya (Salar), Jose Antonio García Martín (Albolote) and Manuel Alarcón (Padul).

Entities: Energy Area of the Provincial Council of Granada, Provincial Energy Agency, Regional Government of Andalusia, Sustainable Construction Cluster, SmartCity Cluster.

Also companies from Granada of the stature of Cuerva, Otero, Inagra… renewable energy parks such as Andasol, Eólico Padul, Hidroeléctrica Marquesado and large multinationals such as Endesa, Iberdrola or Enel.

Inauguration of the Most Illustrious Dean M. Carmen Carrión together with German Luzon. We will have the presence of Dr. Carlos Fúnez, hydrogen expert from CNH2 – National Hydrogen Center.

Our Project Director Juan Carlos García will also present the pollution problems that Granada presents, its air quality improvement policies as well as our vision to face the challenge posed by climate change.

Thanks to all the guests who have made it possible for these great professionals to sit at the same table. Link to the programme here: https://lnkd.in/gs3wXJ7


Dec

05

2018
reunion letter cnh2

2nd Project Meeting H2 – Smart

The H2Smart project visited the National Hydrogen Centre in Puertollano yesterday and a collaboration agreement will be signed with Letter Ingenieros as a result of the visit.

During the visit we had the pleasure of being able to count on Gema Alcalde as main guide as well as on the wise advice of Dr. Carlos Funez.

We are very proud to be able to sign this first framework agreement with such an important centre.

The next visit will be to the foundation Hidrogeno Aragón We are already impatient! (more…)


Dec

04

2018
Reunion Letter H2B2 del proyecto H2 Smart

1st Project Meeting H2 – Smart

The H2 Smart project includes visits to facilities such as those of the Seville-based company H2B2.

This entity is in charge of the manufacture of solutions for the production and supply of hydrogen through water electrolysis, with 3 offices: in Seville, Madrid and California.

H2B2 is a highly qualified and experienced technology company that develops hydrogen production systems based on PEM water electrolysis.

electrolizador de h2b2

Electrolyser of h2b2

With this visit the company Letter Ingenieros aims to learn first hand several concepts such as:

  • The plant balance used by the Sevillian manufacturer.
  • The ways to establish a mutual benefit.
  • Establishing direct contact between companies.

The meeting had a great explanation from our esteemed colleague Eugenio Trillo, which was nuanced by a great professional of the sector as is Afríca Castro.

During the same it was emphasized that this system is modular and scalable so it is easily profitable.

This type of equipment is not discarded, but in initial projects it is possible to take advantage of smaller facilities while facilities with greater demand can be adapted to larger plants.

The H2B2 professionals also told us that their machines are tested 24/7 to verify their optimum performance and that their control system can connect to the internet and create alerts.

As a result of this visit our vision of your plant balance was more than clear as well as other more commercial aspects.


Sep

17

2018
Streetlights history: from Catalan Society of Gas to Barcelona Energy

Streetlights history: from Catalan Society of Gas to Barcelona Energy

We have all seen in movies those oil lamps or candles lighting the streets of cities, but when is street lighting modernized in Spain? What was the first public tender to manage this facility? In Letter Engineers we recently arrived at Barcelona City Council and we have found very interesting data.

We must go back to the nineteenth century, namely the year 1826, so that in Barcelona lights as street lighting system the first gas lamp. According to historians, it is the first time that the streets are lit enough to not feel unprotected.

The City Council of Barcelona convened in 1841 a public lighting contest won by a French industrial engineer. This one founded two years later the company Catalan Society for gas lighting. We currently know it as Naturgy or, the most backward, by Gas Natural Fenosa. As a curiosity, to comment that the street lighting service comes to Barcelona before running water to homes.

During the twentieth century, with the discovery of electric light, began the decline of gas lights since this new system was much cheaper, comfortable and durable. The gas discharge lamps arrive in which, through electricity, the luminescence phenomenon is achieved. One of the first gases used is mercury vapor which, for those who do not know, emits with a wave in which the ultraviolet predominates. Later improves efficiency in street lighting with the arrival of sodium vapor and its characteristic orange color. A few years ago, and it entered the new century, break into the LED technology in street lighting.

Because of the energy transition we live currently marketing energy undergoes radical changes daily. For more than 20 years, the electricity sector in Spain has been liberalized and, nevertheless, it has not been an effective Law as such. Therefore new models to appear Energy Barcelona have emerged. The council manages the generation and marketing in their own facilities. To generate uses different renewable sources such as photovoltaic and wind. However, it is methane from garbage which it gets its greatest green energy.

In Letter Engineers committed to new energy management models for municipal street lighting. We believe that these new models have a lot to say and here we will be to help them in this difficult way.


Aug

24

2018
Smart Territories – Efficient Solutions by Letter Engineers

Smart Territories – Efficient Solutions by Letter Engineers

“NATIONAL PLAN OF INTELLIGENT TERRITORIES. A strategy for a “smart Spain” that seeks to maximize the opportunities offered by the proper use of digital platforms to provide better public services in the city and in rural areas, and where Letter Engineers has much to offer”

Energy Efficiency: the starting point of an Intelligent Territory

Since 2007, European 20/20/20 targets were established:

  • 20% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (in relation to 1990 levels)
  • 20% renewable energy in the EU
  • 20% improvement in energy efficiency

In Spain, there have been multiple strategies and announcements, focused on the Energy Efficiency of our towns and cities, since consuming more efficiently helps us to achieve the targets and we also contribute to reduce our Carbon Footprint.

“We have a common challenge: to plan, manage and govern our cities in a sustainable way, maximizing economic opportunities and minimizing environmental damage”

All this has given way to the use of digital platforms able to manage efficiently:

  • ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF PUBLIC LIGHTING
  • EFFICIENT WATER CONSUMPTION IN THE IRRIGATION SYSTEM OF PARKS AND GARDENS.
  • EFFICIENT ROUTES IN WASTE MANAGEMENT
  • INTELLIGENT ROUTES IN PUBLIC TRANSPORT

hence, the goal of transforming traditional cities into “SMART CITY”.

To make all of us much clearer, a Smart city is a sustainable and innovative city, since it uses Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and other means to improve decision-making, the efficiency of operations, the provision of urban services and their competitiveness.


Although it is many steps to go in parallel in Spain it has unveiled NATIONAL PLAN OF TERRITORIES INTELLIGENT, which is part of the digital strategy for Intelligent Spain and it is aligned with the described context and target of the Smart City.

What is a Smart Territory?

The term intelligent territory comes after the peculiarity of our cities and our environment, since the city must be treated as an entity whose boundaries go beyond proper limits. All this is because our cities are included in a much larger area connected to other nearby municipalities.

Another new feature included in this National Plan is the integration of strategy in our rural areas, with the approach of developing a policy named SMART VILLAGES. And it is that 82.8% of the Spanish municipalities are rural and they occupy 72.8% of the total area of the country.

What role does Letter Engineers in the development of Intelligent Territories?

Since the beginning in 2013, LETTER INGENIEROS has opted for technological innovation as an intelligent solution in the energy management of a city or town.

Our team is not only made up of engineers and environmentalists who are experts in energy efficiency, but also supported by the management platforms developed by our Innovation and Development department, composed of computer engineers and experts in the development of applications.

This is the case, for example, of the EFILUX intelligent management platform, which allows the visualization and search of lighting inventory as well as energy management and maintenance.

This platform has been developed with the latest technology to work quickly and efficiently, with a simple, intuitive and clean interface. It also allows to visulise absolutely all the characteristics of any point of light, control center or part of the installation as well as to manage the electronic invoices and to locate disagreements.

Being a management platform of own development allows us to adapt it to the needs of each customer, being functional for another type of management, such as: EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF IRRIGATION OF PARKS AND GARDENS, among other functions.

The proposed Telemanagement and Energy Efficiency system will allow a complete management of the maintenance from the control center as well as from the work posts of the maintenance staff, both in their facilities and on the street.

Letter Ingenieros is committed to the smart development of our cities and rural environments as the only solution to sustainable development.


Aug

17

2018
Vehículos Eléctricos en punto de Recarga

Experts in Exterior Electricity Projects – Recharge Points

One of the great challenges of this society is to achieve the change of the current energy model for another more sustainable, more efficient, more environmentally friendly and, of course, to ensure an improved social and economic world

That is why, and the unsustainability of the current energy model based on the consumption of fossil fuels that has so many harmful effects for all of us (when I say of harmful,  I not only am referring to climate change), that the Electric Vehicle is being introduced in society as a GREAT alternative to our system of public and private mobility.

While it is true, we still have many who have doubts and especially when we think: where do I plug it if I go on a trip? … since, in many territories, there is not yet a recharge network that gives us peace of mind when we move our electric vehicle. To do this, there are a number of existing aid to carry out investments in charging equipment for electric vehicles.

Aids to encourage the use of the Electric Vehicle

In Andalusia, within the Intelligent Networks area of the Program for the Sustainable Energy Development of Andalusia we find very interesting incentive lines that have the following aims:

PROMOTE THE TRANSFORMATION OF OUR COUNTRY TOWARDS A SMART CITY MODEL, THROUGH A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT THAT IS RESPECTFUL TO THE ENVIRONMENT

With this aid: what is encouraged?

The purpose of this line of aid is the development of infrastructures that facilitate the use of electricity, or the use of gas or hydrogen in the transport of people or goods, with actions such as:

CHARGING FACILITIES FOR SINGLE USE

RECHARGE FACILITIES PUBLICLY AVAILABLE

O RECHARGE ADVANCED FACILITIES

and for municipalities with fewer than 20.000 habitants, the percentage of aid can reach up to 70% of the fundable costs.

How can Letter Engineers help you?

Letter Engineers experts in efficient energy management systems, has a technical office formed by experts from various branches of engineering and environment, who are responsible for advising our clients and potential clients on fundable projects, such as those related to the Electric Vehicle

In addition, in our engineering department LETTER ING we have experts electrical engineers in ELECTRICITY OUTSIDE and relaxed experience in technical assistance for project development, preliminary and tender documents, design and project development, licensing, environmental impact studies and management of projects of this type.

Do not hesitate and contact our experts, a sustainable future is possible if we all take part.


Aug

10

2018
Estación de recarga TESLA de vehículos eléctricos.

The electric vehicle, how does it work?

Because of the major environmental problems, congestion in cities, their high levels of pollution, and the new energy framework of Spain, the electric vehicle is taking a special role in our daily conversations.

How does an electric car work?

From Letter Engineers, we will try to explain in a clear and simple way how an electric car works. For this, we will focus on its two fundamental parts: the electric motor and the battery.

Basic concepts

The first thing we have to understand is the concept of current as well as the two types of current that we have, continuous (DC) and alternate (AC). The current is basically the flow of electrons through a conductive medium such as a cable. Depending on the amount of flow we have more or less amperes (A), which is how the intensity or electric current is measured. For the electrons to move, a potential differential (Volts) is necessary, just as a river needs a height difference for the water to run.

If the flow of electrons is more or less constant and in one direction, from one pole to another, we are talking about direct current. On the other hand, if the flow changes every certain time (cycle), we will have alternating current. In Spain these cycles are 50 Hz, meaning the direction changes 50 times per second.

Normally we will use direct current for small electronic devices to about 24V. We use the alternating current for more voltage, for example at home we get 230V in single phase (one phase) and 400V if we had a supply in three phase (three phases). We use alternating current because unlike the continuous one it can be increased or decreased its voltage easily in transformers. If we want to move electrical energy at a great distance we will increase its voltage at the cost of decreasing its intensity so that we will have less losses (Ohm’s Law). The great advantage of direct current is that we can store it, chemically, for example in a battery, then we will see how. This is how our mobile works.

The device that converts alternating current into continuous is called a power supply, while the device that converts the continuous current into alternating current is called an inverter.

The product of the current (A) by the voltage (V) gives us the power that is measured in Watts (W); Well, this is not entirely true, but we can do for now. Do not confuse the power in W with the energy that is measured in Wh. Energy is the product of power by time.

We have summarized the most to make it clear and simple, however, if you have questions on these concepts you can contact us so that we expand these fundamentals.

Traction Battery

It is one of the most important parts of an electric car. Not to be confused with the service battery that is 12 or 24V we currently have and that feeds the lights, radio, etc.

The traction battery is a set of cells that store continuous electrical energy in a chemical way. Electric power is obtained from an external plug (at home or on public roads where we already know that it is alternating energy), but the battery has to arrive in continuous mode so we use a power source (known as a charger).

The BMS monitors the loading and unloading status of each cell, let’s say it is the one that controls the battery. It is very useful to manage, for example, fast loading. Here what we do is take each cell up to 80-90% of its capacity leaving the rest free. In a battery which is the longest completely filled cell and fast charging it makes use of this topic.

Electric motor vs combustion

Due to Nikola Tesla in 1893, today we have AC motors, a simple way to convert electrical energy into mechanical. Due to mechanical energy we can move the wheels of a car passing previously by the transmission shaft.

An electric motor is nothing more than an enclosure where you have a stator (fixed part) and a rotor (moving part). Depending on the engine type we have some magnets which have a power to create a electromagnetic fields that move the rotor. The good thing about this is that investing in the engine cycle can act as a generator and spend mechanical energy into electricity. This is used to store energy in the battery taking advantage of braking and lowering.

Most electric cars are powered by a three-phase AC motor. From the battery, where we know that we have continuous power, we need an inverter to pass it to AC. Depending on the energy that passes through the engine we have more or less revolutions (RPM) and therefore power. Out of curiosity comment that we can reach 15,000 or 20,000 RPM. The maximum power in an electric is obtained from the initial moment since we have the maximum torque.

A combustion engine (those of a lifetime) instead of electricity works by combustion of a fuel (gasoline, diesel, gas …) in an explosion-compression engine in pistons. The main problem is that as a byproduct of the reaction, gases are generated that, depending on the fuel, are more or less polluting.

An electric motor is much smaller than a combustion engine and with many fewer parts. We also have much less friction parts and therefore less maintenance. The power curve in an electric motor is linear and we have all the power available at the start, however, in combustion we have little power at low revolutions. This causes that in an electric we do not need a gearbox.

Electric car charging point


Jul

20

2018
Nuevo Panorama Energético Español

Energy Transition in Spain. We explain it to you

“The most difficult thing is to leave from a model where there is a series of investments and positions created, towards another much more plural, diverse and positive energy model”

“It’s time for sustainable development” words of Teresa Rivera, Minister of Energy and Environment.

For any citizen is becoming common to hear talk about “decarbonisation of energy”. Mainly we need energy for the buildings and for the transport leaving aside other uses such as the industrial one. We are going to focus on analyzing what is happening in these two sectors with the energy transition that we are already experiencing.

To understand the concept of decarbonisation we have to comprehend which the energy we need is obtained from fossil fuels (coal and gas in combined cycles), nuclear or renewable energy plants. According to the recent report by Spanish Red Electrica (REE) electricity demand in 2017 was supplied as follows:

The new Government, with Minister Teresa Ribero at the head, has already indicated its intention to finish in less than 10 years (2028) with the coal and nuclear power plants. We quickly realize that we will need 38.1% of the 252 TWh of current annual demand. We can already get an idea of the potential that renewables have in this transition.

On the other hand we have the issue of CO2 emissions. We all know which the nuclear ones do not have emissions and they contribute to reduce the global compute. This year we have increased our emissions by 5% and is expected to continue being done in the coming years. Therefore it is very important which everything is done very well analyzed as it is also expected that the ton of CO2 will pass in a few years to cost € 30 to € 100. Yes, you listened well, we paid for the emissions. We even pay for nuclear waste, in this case € 75,000 / year to France.

According to the International Labour Organization, throughout this transition process will be created four posts jobs for every one destroyed. The sectors with more opportunities: renewable in buildings, sustainable mobility with electricity and gas, energy management active and intelligent of smartcity. Among them are synergies as the exchange of energy between cars, urban equipment and buildings, all aimed to build cities of the future in which the citizen owns his energy, produce and consume.



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